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Being legally unethical and the arrogance of power: An essay of protest against the decisions and actions of the Biblical Archaeology Society

‘Εμπροσθοφύλακας’
“Being legally unethical and the arrogance of power: An essay of protest against the decisions and actions of the Biblical Archaeology Society” 
June 13th, 2012
Charalambos Paraskeva*

Abraham Lincoln once said that “nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man’s character, give him power”. Following this trail of thinking, it becomes self-evident that the ability and right to think, act and decide condense the quintessence of a person’s and even collectivity’s ethical code, morality and civility. However I’m not writing today to discuss the subject matter in abstract terms, but to protest based on principles against the decisions and actions of the Biblical Archaeology Society, as they appear to be prepared to willingly and knowingly commit illegal and unethical acts in the name of scientific knowledge, practicality, opportunism and legal obscurantism.

As an introduction to the issue the reader is informed that the Biblical Archaeology Society decided to organize a summer expedition from June 1st to 15th following the footsteps of Paul the Apostle around the Mediterranean.[1] Inevitably this includes visits to sites both in Turkey and Cyprus and indeed by any measurement of scientific and academic value it is an admirable enterprise. However, whatever this venture offers in educational value, it concurrently subtracts by disrespecting international and national law and by refuting core objectives of archaeology as a scientific discipline. Undeniably the aforesaid highly esteemed institution has in the form of an official letter addressed to key diplomatic and academic figures, bodies and institutions in Cyprus and abroad, declared its intentions to enter and exit the country via an illegal port of entry, economically support the Turkish led ruling regime of a UN declared invalid state and audaciously further enter the Republic of Cyprus and demand to be treated as legal visitors due to technical lacunae in the current law.[2] In more detail the scheduled tour includes arrival in Cyprus on June 11th through the illegal airport of Tymbou,[3] two day stay at a hotel in Kyrenia, educational excursions to Salamis and Paphos on June 11th-12th and finally the return to Constantinople through the same illegal port of entry at Tymbou.[4] Unsurprisingly many research, diplomatic and governmental bodies, organizations and institutions have formally protested and advised against one such endeavor,[5] while further requesting from the Biblical Archaeology Society at the very least to enter the country via a legal point of entry, as defined in the instructions of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for visitors to the island. Nonetheless the Biblical Archaeology Society has chosen to disregard all advice and therefore insult the aforementioned entities by not complying with national and international law.

One may rightly wonder at this point, why all these actions are illegal and how would an institution manage to technically evade law in order to achieve its set purposes?

To begin with in order to address the question a brief reminder of recent historical events is deemed necessary and if you are already familiar with this, you are invited to skip the following paragraph. As you may or may not be aware, Cyprus has been illegally divided and occupied since 1974, when Turkey invaded and seized control of approximately 37% of the northern part of the Republic’s sovereign territory in violation of international law and the UN Charter.[6] As a side note to these events, it is called to attention that in modern day, politically correct and alas unethical lingo the term invasion has been downgraded to military intervention,[7] but in that old neglected human rights language that the UN endorses, it is still called an invasion.[8] This criminal situation has led to mass violation of the human rights of the Greek- and Turkish-Cypriot people, forcible expulsion of approximately 200000 Greek-Cypriots from their homes and massive colonization through the illegal implantation of more than 300000 Turkish mainland settlers in the occupied areas of Cyprus,[9] trespassing and illegal exploitation of property belonging to Greek-Cypriot refugees,[10] cultural destruction and religious desecration, suffering of a great number of families whose relatives remain missing since 1974 and whose fate is still unknown, and finally forcible ethnic segregation and division of the Greek- and Turkish-Cypriot communities. Following the unlawful stationing and establishment of 43000 Turkish troops on the island, in 1983 under political pressure from Turkey, the Turkish-Cypriot temporary administration of the northern, occupied part of the island, attempted to declare itself as an independent state called Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), an act dynamically countered by the United Nations Security Council that denounced the declaration and condemned this unilateral attempt to declare independence by characterizing it as legally invalid and illegal.[11] All members of the United Nations have ratified the relevant resolutions with the exception of Turkey, which is the occupying power, thus all countries, but Turkey, do not formally recognize the TRNC as a state. Finally since 1974 peace talks between the Republic of Cyprus and the Turkish-Cypriot administration of the north have been held under the high protection and mediation of the United Nations. Sadly a much desired reunification agreement or a settlement of the issues on the island remain elusive, mainly due to Turkey’s denial to withdraw the occupying forces and release control of the occupied lands to the Greek- and Turkish-Cypriot inhabitants and legal owners of Cyprus.

Moving to legal issues arising from the actions of the Biblical Archaeology Society, it immediately becomes obvious that the proposed schedule and route is indeed in sharp contrast with international and national legislation. In effect the tour group enters the country via an illegal port of entry, as the Tymbou airport is not included in the list of legal ports of entry to the Republic of Cyprus.[12] Furthermore this airport is not acknowledged by the International Civil Aviation Organization and its illegal activities pose a serious threat to flight safety in the region.[13] Another legal ramification of the Biblical Archaeology Society decision to enter the Republic of Cyprus via Tymbou and subsequently stay in a hotel near Kyrenia, is that both locations in terms of property ownership do not actually belong to the temporal administration of the north and their use and management consists an infringement of the First and Fourth Geneva Conventions.[14] This illegality has been recognized, condemned and penalized by the European Court of Human Rights and European Court of Justice on numerous occasions,[15] while the tour team itself risks indictment in the event of a future lawsuit for trespassing and use without permission by the legal owners of the properties in which both the airport and the hotel are currently built in.[16]

Turning to non-legal, but ethical, political and cultural aspects of the issue, one can more clearly understand the gravity of the actions of the Biblical Archaeology Society.

Firstly a trip conducted in this illegal manner undermines the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus and disrespects international law, the relevant United Nations General Assembly and Security Council resolutions and national regulations for entry in Cyprus, as explained above. Moreover one such recognition of a UN acknowledged invalid state contributes to an undesired increase of tensions between the occupied and non-occupied sides of the island; the cultural, ethnic and political segregation of the Turkish- and Greek-Cypriot communities, and finally the further division and bipartition of the island. In order to widen the reader’s perspective, it is noted that the aforementioned consequences seem to form part of Turkey’s foreign affairs macro-politics.[17] Thus the endorsement and recognition of the invalid state currently in operation in the northern, occupied part of the island, consists a parallel contribution to the realization of Turkey’s expansionist agenda.

Beyond politics let us not forget that the Biblical Archaeology Society is an archaeological institution dedicated to the study, promotion and preservation of archaeological heritage of the Biblical Lands, including Cyprus.[18] Nevertheless this core objective of the society and indeed archaeology as a scientific discipline per se, are actively negated and ignored as a consequence of this trip, since besides politically acknowledging an invalid state, the Biblical Archaeology Society moves one step further by economically subsidizing the illegally ruling Turkish run regime.[19] Admittedly money from the temporal administration has very rarely been geared towards the protection or preservation of the very monuments the society is announcing it plans to visit and study.[20] On the contrary illicit antiquities trafficking,[21] illegal excavation and non-approved archaeological research projects,[22] as well as the destruction, desecration and looting of cultural heritage sites,[23] have been regularly observed phenomena that are tolerated and promoted by the illegally ruling regime. This conclusion has been independently reached by the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, which has for the third consecutive year designated Turkey as a country of particular concern due in part to the restriction of religious freedom and religious and cultural destruction that has occurred in Turkish-occupied Cyprus.[24]

Finally in a separate Memorandum of Understanding between the Republic of Cyprus and the United States of America, the US Government has committed to use “its best efforts to expand exchanges with Cyprus that foster greater understanding and preservation of Cypriot heritage”.[25] Unfortunately the Biblical Archaeology Society has chosen to blatantly disrespect all the aforementioned treaties, memorandums, recommendations and resolutions regarding the preservation of cultural heritage in the occupied northern part of the island by endorsing active subsidization of the regime responsible for its destruction.

“Audiatur et altera pars”, a wise jurist and philosopher of the past advises. In doing so, the latter part of the initial question posed shall be reconsidered, viz. the mode of law evasion that the Biblical Archaeology Society has applied in order to carry out its planned trip to Cyprus; while the arguments set forth to justify their decision to eventually proceed with the scheduled plan are also to be thoroughly examined.

Ab initio the response letter by the Society offers a simplifying view of a perceived de facto situation existent on the island, which suggests that the two thirds of the island in the South are controlled by the Republic of Cyprus and is called Greek Cyprus, whilst the one third of the island in the North is controlled by the Turkish Cypriots as a result of a military campaign by Turkey in 1974.[26] Beyond distorting the recent history of the island in an insulting way and disrespecting UN resolutions for reasons mentioned afore, this conclusion is at least considered divisive and highly irresponsible in part of a scientific archaeological institution. Peace talks on the Cyprus Problem are currently at a very fragile stage and this kind of statements not only hinder progress, but direct the Turkish led negotiating team to advance claims regarding the consolidation and legitimation of the temporary administration of the occupied areas in the north. On a more austere tone the Republic of Cyprus does not belong to Greek-Cypriots or Turkish-Cypriots alone, it belongs to Cypriots of all ethnic and cultural identities inhabiting the island and instead of a rhetoric that highlights the differences of the various identity carriers that are trying to find a way to peacefully live together on the island, it would have been wiser to opt for a language promoting negotiation, collaboration and peaceful coexistence.

Moving forward, in their response the Biblical Archaeology Society attempts to portray the illegal airport at Tymbou, as a universally accepted landing destination for airliners operating in Europe and the rest of the world. In response to this attempt at justifying their decision, it is mentioned that all airline companies cited (Turkish Airlines, Turkish Cyprus Airlines, Pegasus Airlines, Atlasjet) are based in Turkey and are operated by Turkish companies. It is further reminded that Turkey is the invading and occupying force of the northern part of Cyprus and effectively the only member of the United Nations that acknowledges the legality of the administration of the north, therefore allowing flights from and to northern Cyprus. Contrary to the statement by the Biblical Archaeology Society, there are no direct or indirect flights offered by non-Turkish airliners from any airport in the world to northern Cyprus, as they are not considered legal and they are not permitted by the European Union or any other UN member state legislations with the exception of Turkey. Added to the above the Biblical Archaeology Society states without naming that charter flights to the Tymbou airport are carried out by an airline that flies from Great Britain. One such claim is invalid and plainly put untrue, as the only case of one such attempt by a Turkish airline carrier called KTHY requesting extension of its operations from the United Kingdom to include northern Cyprus, ended in a denial of the right to provide such services by the Royal Courts of Justice of the United Kingdom.[27]

In a final multi-level argument set forth by the Biblical Archaeology Society, it is claimed that based on literature by the State Department, since 2004, at least on the ground, there has been free and easy passage between occupied and non-occupied areas in Cyprus. This situation in conjunction to the facts that visas for US and EU citizens are not needed in order to enter non-occupied Cyprus and passports are not customarily stamped at the Tymbou airport, lead to the conclusion that entering and exiting the Republic of Cyprus from the northern, occupied part is actually legal. As this is a quite complex argument with elements of heavy cherry picking of the State Department’s notes on travelling, it will be attempted to tackle it in a step-wise fashion in order to make it easier for the reader to understand how a legal lacuna can lead to law evasion and illegal conduct with significant ramification for the citizens attempting it. To begin with the Republic of Cyprus since May 1st 2004 has been a member of the European Union and this has led to a series of changes in the legislation of the country, as there are rules regarding freedom of passage between member states of the EU. However there exists a key protocol attached to the Treaty of Accession of Cyprus to the EU, which specifically declares that “the application of the acquis shall be suspended in those areas of the Republic of Cyprus in which the Government of the Republic of Cyprus does not exercise effective control” and that “nothing in this Protocol shall preclude measures with a view to promoting the economic development of the areas referred to in Article 1 [viz. the occupied area]”.[28] This protocol clearly states that the freedom of passage does not apply to the northern, occupied part of Cyprus, except where and when the Republic of Cyprus allows passage, as a measure of promoting the economic growth of the occupied areas. In another set of regulations called the Green Line Regulation, which the Republic of Cyprus has entered into force also on May 1st 2004, as part of a relaxation of restrictions program in line with the intensification of peace talks and the implementation of confidence building measures between the conflicting sides, it is also clearly stated that passage into and exit from the occupied part of Cyprus is allowed for physical persons and specific types of agricultural and other trade goods at designated crossing points.[29] This piece of EU legislation is particularly important, as it dictates the legal path for entering and exiting the occupied, northern part of the Republic of Cyprus and that is exclusively restricted to crossing through the ground and at specific waypoints. Therefore the Green Line Regulation does not cover other modes of entering the occupied areas, such as by boat or by airplane, as those are legally regulated by the directives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in a separate document that designates the legal ports of entry and exit for the entire island.[30] In combination the two aforementioned statutory texts do form a coherent body of legislation specifying what is legal and what is not legal in regards to entering and exiting either the occupied, non-controlled areas of the Republic of Cyprus or the areas under its control. Nevertheless the illegal operation of the Tymbou airport has indeed created a problem in the entry/exit regulation of visitors to the island, which applies in one specific case and this is exactly the legislative hole that the Biblical Archaeology Society is manipulating to accomplish its planned trip. Based on the aforesaid directives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, indeed US and EU citizens are not required to obtain a visa to enter the island for touristic purposes. At the same time, these individuals should they wish to visit the occupied area of the Republic of Cyprus, may do so through the designated crossing points on the ground at any time. However should a US or EU citizen illegally arrive on the island through the Tymbou airport via Turkey, there exists presently no way for the Republic of Cyprus to control at the Green Line crossing points whether one such individual has entered the country through a legal or illegal port of entry. This is a lacuna in the legislation that on the one hand currently depends on the citizens of the aforesaid geographical areas to abide to the laws of the Republic of Cyprus and the international UN resolutions based on respect and understanding for the current situation of the island, while on the other hand it is a matter that is pending regulation both by the Parliament of the Republic of Cyprus and the European Parliament.[31] At present all EU countries and the US State Department specifically mention that their citizens traveling in Cyprus are subject to the laws in force on the island,[32] while their signatures on all the above mentioned treaties and resolutions by a host of international institutions and organizations, provide the Government of the Republic of Cyprus with a guarantee that their citizens should abide to the laws. Furthermore if any EU and US citizen attempt to illegally arrive on the island through the Tymbou airport in the occupied areas and then attempt to cross the Green Line and enter the Government controlled areas of the Republic of Cyprus the following clauses are entirely legal and effective: a. He/she will be allowed to cross back and forth normally due to lack of evidence of his/her illegal arrival. In this case it is emphasized that this lack of evidence does not render the actions of one such citizen legal, only non-punishable by law due to evasion of the latter based on the aforesaid technicality. Should evidence arise either during his/her stay on the island or in the future after his/her departure, the citizen can be prosecuted for illegal trespassing/migration to the Republic of Cyprus. b. He/she will be stopped at the border for checking,[33] and in the event that evidence of his/her illegal action can be verified by the Cypriot Police,[34] he/she may be charged for illegal trespassing/migration into the Republic of Cyprus, be arrested and subsequently deported to their country of origin and in rare occasions become designated as persona non grata at the Republic of Cyprus. This is the reason why the US State Department notes that “most US citizen visitors to Cyprus are able to cross the buffer zone without hindrance, although on occasion difficulties are encountered at both the Government and Turkish Cypriot checkpoints.”[35] Having thoroughly analyzed the issue at hand we arrive at a most crucial point in the discussion, where argumentation rests and some rhetorical questions are raised: Does actively evading international and national law due to technical lacunae justify or even legalize those otherwise illegal actions? Should a person abuse the power to evade law when possible in order to gain any kind of profit? If the spirit and letter of the laws agree with morals and ethics, is it still justified for any person to defy all? I shall not attempt to answer any of these, as they are entirely entrusted to the judgment of each individual reader.

Adding to the above syllogisms and speaking from a Greek-Cypriot perspective I wish to remind you at this point that the aim of this article is not to harm the interests of, to isolate or to condemn the Turkish-Cypriot community, as they are too suffering due to the consequences of the 1974 Turkish invasion and subsequent continuing occupation of the island. Instead the article focuses solely on legal and ethical matters concerning the decisions and actions of the Biblical Archaeology Society, which are in the view of the present writer both condemnable and censurable. By way of conclusion it is repeated that the Biblical Archaeology Society is aware of all the legal, cultural and historical background of the island and the particular case in hand, and yet chooses to promote contempt for international and national law; disrespect for the legal authorities of the Republic of Cyprus and the numerous scientific and other social institutions and organizations on the island and elsewhere opposing their decision and planned route of action; and finally subsidization of an aggressive Turkish governed regime that is responsible for the en masse destruction of cultural heritage in the occupied areas of the Republic of Cyprus. For all the afore-stated reasons, I respectfully ask you to endorse and sign the following petition against the actions of the Biblical Archaeology Society: http://www.gopetition.com/petitions/stop-biblical-archaeology-society-s-trip-to-occupied-cy.html

*Charalambos Paraskeva is a PhD student in Archaeology at the University of Edinburgh and a Member of the Board of the Association of Cypriot Archaeologists


[1] The Biblical Archaeology Society is a not-for-profit, nondenominational, educational organization and its set purposes and information regarding their operation can be found here: http://www.bib-arch.org/about.asp

[2] A copy of the letter may be accessed here: https://www.rapidshare.com/files/3615207068/response_Biblical_Archaeology_Society.pdf

[3] This airport is illegally often called Ercan airport, a non-recognized International Civil Aviation Organization term that further defies the UN resolutions ΙΙΙ/16 of 1977 and VI/9 of 1992 regarding the alteration of place names and the preservation of intangible cultural heritage.

[4] The full schedule for the trip can be found here: http://www.bib-arch.org/travel-study/tutku-tours-travel-programs-turkey-cyprus.asp#Host

[5] You may download letters directed to the Biblical Archaeology Society by the American Hellenic Institute, the Archaeological Research Unit of the University of Cyprus and the Association of Cypriot Archaeologists: http://ahiworld.com/pdfs/BiblicalArchaeologySociety_May10.pdf and https://www.rapidshare.com/files/2627943052/Letter_to_Biblical_Archaeology_Society.pdf and https://www.rapidshare.com/files/4042622871/ACA_Deltio_Typou.pdf. Furthermore an online petition by the Centre for Scientific Dialogue and Research has gathered up to the present time 1080 signatures, which may be viewed here: http://www.gopetition.com/petitions/stop-biblical-archaeology-society-s-trip-to-occupied-cy/signatures.html

[6] Specifically UN Charter Chapters I, VI, VII: http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter1.shtml and http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter6.shtml and http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter7.shtml

[7] See for example the narration of events at: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5376.htm#history

[8] See the UN narration of events: http://www.un.int/cyprus/cyissue.htm

[9] This action is recognized in the 1949 Geneva Fourth Convention, Article 49 and more clearly in the 1977 Additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions, Article 85 as a war crime: http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/WebART/380-600056?OpenDocument and http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/WebART/470-750111?OpenDocument

[10] This action is recognized in the 1949 Geneva First Convention, Article 50 and again in the 1949 Geneva Fourth Convention, Article 147 as a war crime: http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/WebART/365-570061?OpenDocument and http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/WebART/380-600169?OpenDocument

[11] See the relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions 541 (1983) and 550 (1984): http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NR0/453/99/IMG/NR045399.pdf?OpenElement and http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NR0/487/80/IMG/NR048780.pdf?OpenElement

[12] Those are the Paphos and Larnaca airports and the Limassol, Larnaca, Paphos and Latsi ports. The official Entry Regulations by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is quite clear on this subject: http://www.mfa.gov.cy/mfa/mfa2006.nsf/All/BCD9E71A8FBBA8DCC225720B001D9AFE?OpenDocument#1

[13] The ICAO does not list TRNC as a member state: http://www.icao.int/MemberStates/Member%20States.Multilingual.pdf and for the reason why it cannot be included see Article 93bis in the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation: http://www.icao.int/publications/Documents/7300_cons.pdf Further information on the status of the Tymbou airport see the Ministry of Foreign Affairs information: http://www.mfa.gov.cy/mfa/embassies/embassy_doha.nsf/misc_en/21749A0E7EE8D8E3432572650037417A?OpenDocument

[14] See footnote 8 for specific references.

[15] See for example the cases of Titina Loizidou VS Turkey and Apostolides VS Orams: http://cmiskp.echr.coe.int/tkp197/view.asp?item=2&portal=hbkm&action=html&highlight=titina&sessionid=98408639&skin=hudoc-en and http://curia.europa.eu/juris/document/document.jsf?text=Orams&docid=78109&pageIndex=0&doclang=en&mode=req&dir=&occ=first&part=1&cid=2657660#ctx1

[16] See note 3 in Admission and transit restrictions: http://www.mfa.gov.cy/mfa/mfa2006.nsf/All/BCD9E71A8FBBA8DCC225720B001D9AFE?OpenDocument#1

[17] A most clear example of current Turkish foreign politics line of thinking may be found in a recent roadmap publication by the present Foreign Affairs Minister of Turkey in: Davutoğlu Ahmet, 2001. Stratejik Derinlik, Türkiye’nin Uluslararası Konumu, Istanbul: Küre Yayınları: 179-184.

[18] As stated in the About section of the BAS website: http://www.bib-arch.org/about.asp

[19] Mustafa Akinci, the former Vice-President of the temporal administration of the north, occupied areas has openly stated that the administration is run from Turkey via the civil and military bureaucracy: http://www.institutkurde.org/en/publications/bulletins/262.html#8

[20] There has not been any restoration or preservation work of Greek-Cypriot monuments undertaken after 1974 that is reported even within the propagandistic site of the TRNC: http://www.kktcenf.org/en/index.asp?sayfa=cms&dmid=0&cmsid=168&ssid=139795100 and http://www.kktcenf.org/en/index.asp?sayfa=cms&dmid=0&cmsid=181&ssid=362297237

[21] A quite informed article on the matter can be found here: http://human-rights-archaeology.blogspot.com/2008/05/illicit-antiquities-trade-through.html

[22] For example the illicit excavations at Salamis, Akanthou/Tatlısu and Galinoporni/Kaleburnu all contradict and violate international conventions and recommendations, such as Article 9 of the Second Protocol of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict: http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=15207&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html and Article 32 of the UNESCO 1956 New Delhi Recommendation on International Principles Applicable to Archaeological Excavations: http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13062&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html.

[23] The following study by the Church of Cyprus documents in depth the situation of religious monuments in the occupied northern part of the island (the publication is in Greek, but the provided photographs illustrate the state of preservation quite vividly): http://www.churchofcyprus.org.cy/books/art.pdf

[24] See the relevant conclusions on pp. 214-215 and recommendations for the US Government on pp. 219-220: http://www.uscirf.gov/images/Annual%20Report%20of%20USCIRF%202012%282%29.pdf

[25] See Article II, Point K of the 2007 Revised Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Cyprus Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Pre-Classical and Classical Archaeological Objects and Byzantine Period Ecclesiastical and Ritual Ethnological Material: http://www.mcw.gov.cy/mcw/da/da.nsf/All/0BF97AF4EDED98A9422577CF00468044/$file/cy2007mouext.pdf

[26] Again the response letter may be downloaded here: https://www.rapidshare.com/files/3615207068/response_Biblical_Archaeology_Society.pdf

[27] You may access the legal documentation of the case here: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=9&ved=0CHoQFjAI&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.brickcourt.co.uk%2Fuploads%2Fr-%28kibris-turk-hava-yollari%29-v-ss-transport—12-oct-10.doc&ei=BFHKT963EevP4QT69dkD&usg=AFQjCNHKYEKSh4gmM-aPYhZbbXWUD3_tDw&sig2=WdPuvqjRvOxTBgmdBxFqlw Also the aforesaid agent has now completely shut down its operations and transferred responsibility for flights to Atlasjet: http://www.kthy.net/

[28] Articles 1 and 3 in Protocol 10 of the Accession Treaty: http://ec.europa.eu/cyprus/documents/turkish_community/acc_treaty_protocol10.jpg

[29] A consolidated version of the Green Line Regulation including amendments can be found here: http://ec.europa.eu/cyprus/documents/turkish_community/greenline.pdf

[30] See Admission and transit restrictions of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at: http://www.mfa.gov.cy/mfa/mfa2006.nsf/All/BCD9E71A8FBBA8DCC225720B001D9AFE?OpenDocument#1

[31] This is also the reason why the US State Department travel notes for Cyprus remain creatively vague on the subject, but in order to be legally covered they advise visitors to communicate with the Embassy of Cyprus regarding crossing regulations. Also they formally inform potential travelers that “policy and procedures regarding travel across the buffer zone are subject to change and more information on current procedures may be obtained at the UN buffer zone Ledra Palace checkpoint in Nicosia.” This statement and further information on regulations may be found in the relevant sections on the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program and Special Circumstances of the US State Department here: http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1098.html#registration  and http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1098.html#special_circumstance

[32] You may see the relevant sections on Criminal Penalties and Special Circumstances of the US State Department here: http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1098.html#criminal_penalties and http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1098.html#special_circumstance

[33] This provision is legal and in force based on Article 2 of the Green Line Regulation: http://ec.europa.eu/cyprus/documents/turkish_community/greenline.pdf

[34] In the last report of the bilateral committee observing the enforcement of the Green Line Regulation it is mentioned that in the eight months from May to December 2010, 1196 cases of illegal trespassing to the Government controlled areas have been identified. You can access the report here: http://ec.europa.eu/cyprus/documents/turkish_community/glr_v61.pdf

[35] This sentence is highlighted in the Special Circumstances section of the State Department: http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1098.html#special_circumstance


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